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Author Topic: Miscellaneous threats to survival  (Read 170810 times)

Ed Douglas

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #420 on: July 27, 2011, 06:28:52 PM »
I would expect to see more of that kind of event.  ed

enlightenme

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #421 on: July 28, 2011, 04:00:31 AM »
We have been having, what I would consider, some really crazy weather type stuff going on here in PA.  The other day right when the heat wave was breaking, one town got 6 inches of rain, while all the others surrounding it were reporting the typical 1-2 inches!!  AND I REALLY NEED TO KNOW...have you guys heard in any of your states, these radio public service announcements on disaster preparedness??  Suddenly I'm hearing them all over the radio when we never had them before, and there's a website set-up about it as well (I'm not sure how long that's been there).  Could anyone verify if they've heard these type announcements in any other states????? This did start right after NASA put out their general warning......

ASEEKERTOO

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #422 on: July 28, 2011, 06:59:10 AM »
The gulf coast area has been in a bad drought for a very long time until a
couple of weeks ago. The rain pattern you descibed was a carbon copy of
what happened when it finally did rain. It was like all the moisture was saved
up for one big gulley washer. I am convinced that the atmosphere is screwed up.
 
 Haven't noticed a large amount of Disaster Preparedness commercials but
I'll try to keep track of whether they are increasing or not.
------------------------------------------
I've always heard that Lightning can ocurr far from any clouds. It is the proverbial
Bolt out of the Blue.
« Last Edit: July 28, 2011, 07:00:43 AM by ASEEKERTOO »

bk

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #423 on: July 28, 2011, 09:29:20 AM »
Enlightenme,  Could you post a link to the web site about this?

Thanks, Bob

augonit

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #424 on: July 28, 2011, 12:04:27 PM »
[quote Lisa Wehrle says, "There was no rain. It was a beautiful day. All she heard was some thunder."[/quote]

Anytime you can hear thunder, lightening is present and can strike.  Be careful.

enlightenme

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #425 on: July 28, 2011, 12:31:06 PM »
Bob, I hope you meant the disaster preparedness thing I mentioned, that is www.readypa.org.  I thought it was pretty interesting, like I said, I don't really know how long it's been there.

chaunska

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #426 on: July 28, 2011, 02:58:22 PM »
We have been having, what I would consider, some really crazy weather type stuff going on here in PA.  The other day right when the heat wave was breaking, one town got 6 inches of rain, while all the others surrounding it were reporting the typical 1-2 inches!!  AND I REALLY NEED TO KNOW...have you guys heard in any of your states, these radio public service announcements on disaster preparedness??  Suddenly I'm hearing them all over the radio when we never had them before, and there's a website set-up about it as well (I'm not sure how long that's been there).  Could anyone verify if they've heard these type announcements in any other states????? This did start right after NASA put out their general warning......

Yes, We have them in Kansas, but not very often.

Ed Douglas

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #427 on: July 28, 2011, 06:43:10 PM »
We don't have radio, yet, in Ohio. We still ride horses. I have not seen nor heard any.   ed

Yowbarb

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #428 on: September 06, 2011, 03:41:36 PM »
CHLORAMINE. 
Here's one I never heard about, but just now on the phone one of my daughters said she had heard of this. Used to treat water in our area.

CHLORAMINE, used to treat water is a health hazard.

http://chloramine.org/chloraminefacts.htm#effectsofchloramine

CCAC Citizens Concerned About Chloramine

Chloramine Facts
September 11, 2006

To print Chloramine Facts, click here for a pdf file (41 KB). To download the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to read and print pdf files, click here.

Definitions and Information
Characteristics of Chloramine
Inadequate Studies
Effects of Chloramine on Human Health
Filtration
Misleading Statements from the SFPUC
Business Effects
Plumbing Problems and Some Implications for Health
Environmental Effects
CCAC Recommendations
Definitions and Information

    Chloramine is a combination of chlorine and ammonia.
    Chloramine is used to disinfect water supplies (like the Hetch Hetchy system.) Water utilities often refer to chloramine as monochloramine.
    In reality, chloramine exists as three different forms or species: monochloramine (NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2) and trichloramine (NCl3). They are chemically related and are easily converted into each other; thus, they are more appropriately called chloramines.
    The three species of chloramine constantly and rapidly shift from one form to another. The species that predominates is dependent on pH, temperature, turbulence, and the chlorine to ammonia ratio.
    Even time plays a factor because after a day or so, with no changes in conditions, monochloramine in a water system will slowly degrade to form dichloramine and some trichloramine.
    Chloramines are all respiratory irritants with trichloramine being the most toxic (order of toxicity: monochloramine < dichloramine < trichloramine-most severe.)
    In contrast to what water utilities claim, it is impossible to have only monochloramine. It is not unusual in water systems for harmful di and trichloramines to occur.
    Disinfection byproducts are chemicals formed when a disinfectant combines with organic matter or other chemicals present in water.
    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are disinfection byproducts that are formed when organic matter in the water combines with chlorine.
    THMs are also formed with chloramine disinfection but at a lower concentration-- (approximately 1/3 less) than chlorine.
    THMs are possible but not proven cancer causing byproducts.
    To reduce THMs, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers other disinfection methods such as ultraviolet UV light treatment and chlorine dioxide (see the Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance Manual, EPA 815-R-99-014, April 1999; the Table of Contents lists disinfection methods, one per chapter.)
    Alternative disinfectants to chlorine, including chloramine, have not been studied for their health effects.
    Chlorine is the only disinfectant that has been extensively studied.
    The safest way to reduce THMs, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is to remove the organic matter from the water first through prefiltration before disinfection with chlorine (see the WHO's Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, PDF 145 KB).

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Characteristics of Chloramine

    Chloramine is a less effective disinfectant than chlorine. The World Health Organization (WHO, PDF 145 KB) says that "monochloramine is about 2,000 and 100,000 times less effective than free chlorine for the inactivation of E. Coli and rotaviruses, respectively."
    Chloramine does not dissipate easily compared to chlorine.
    Chloramine stays in the water distribution system longer than chlorine.
    Chloramine is difficult to remove.
    Chloramine cannot be removed by boiling, distilling, or by standing uncovered.
    Some disinfection byproducts of chloramine are even more toxic than those of chlorine, i.e. iodoacids.
    Chloramine vapors and its disinfection byproducts can accumulate in indoor air and concentrate in an enclosed area such as a shower stall, small bathroom, kitchen, or apartment (see Toxic Showers and Baths on this website).

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Inadequate Studies

    The EPA states that there are NO dermal (skin) and NO inhalant (respiratory) studies on chloramine as used as a disinfectant for drinking water.
    The EPA states that there are INADEQUATE cancer studies on humans or animals.
    In studies that do exist, one shows mononuclear cancer in female rats.
    Another study shows reproductive toxicity and reduced reproductivity in mice and hamsters.
    We are told by the SFPUC that chloraminated water is safe for humans to drink but we do not even know if it can cause cancer.
    Research to date only explores oral (such as drinking tap water) exposure. It leaves out exposure through bathing or inhaling indoor vapors.
    The disinfection byproducts of chloramine have not been studied and may be worse than those of chlorine. Chlorine and its disinfection byproducts have been studied extensively for years.
    The San Mateo County Board of Supervisors, in response to public outcry over health effects, requested on December 7, 2004 that the California Conference of Local Health Officers (CCLHO) evaluate "the potentially harmful effects caused by chloramine." (see Resolution, to be added to this website)
    The CCLHO report of March 8, 2005 did NOT study the health effects of chloramine. It only reviewed previous studies, mostly about chlorine and trihalomethanes (for more information, see Article Archive and Links).
    The CCLHO report recommends that the exposed public be monitored for health effects caused by chloramine. In other words, we the public are to be used as guinea pigs.

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Effects of Chloramine on Human Health
Immune System Problems

    Chloramine cannot kill the pathogens in the water as well as chlorine.
    As a result, people with suppressed immune systems must have their water boiled over TEN minutes BEFORE use to kill pathogens, or they risk becoming ill.
    Those at risk include children under 6 months of age, the elderly, those on or who have had chemotherapy, people with HIV or AIDS, organ transplant patients, and others with a weakened immune system.


Respiratory Problems

    Chloramine can cause and/or aggravate respiratory problems.
    Chloramine fumes can cause an individual to become congested and cause sneezing, sinus congestion, coughing, choking, wheezing, shortness of breath, and asthma (see the Hazardous Substances Fact Sheet for Chloramine, PDF, 98 KB), by the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services).
    An increase in asthma due to exposure from chloramine in indoor swimming pool areas was shown in a Belgium study from the Catholic University of Louvain (PDF, 707 KB).
    Chloramine damages mucous membranes. The lung damage in those exposed to chloramine in indoor pool air is similar to that seen in regular smokers (see Health24 News article).
    Chloraminated vapor from showers, baths, hot tubs, dishwashers, and other household appliances contains volatilized chemicals that can be inhaled and cause irritation to the respiratory tract.
    Inhaled chloraminated vapor can enter the bloodstream directly through the lungs. It bypasses the digestive tract where the SFPUC says it is broken down and excreted (questions 35 and 36 in their Chloramination Questions and Answers).
    The SFPUC says that, "if monochloramine enters the bloodstream directly, it combines with hemoglobin (red blood cells) so it can no longer carry oxygen" (question 37).
    The toxic exposure to chemicals (like chloramine) in water is greater from taking a shower than from drinking the same water (see Toxic Showers and Baths).
    An individual can experience long term effects from repeated exposures to a chemical (like chloramine) at levels not high enough to make them immediately sick (see the Hazardous Substances Fact Sheet for Chloramine, page 3, PDF, 98 KB).
    The likelihood of becoming sick from a chemical increases with exposure time and concentration (see the Hazardous Substances Fact Sheet for Chloramine, page 3, PDF, 98 KB).
    In a study by Zierler, et al (PDF, 821 KB), it was found that there was an increase in deaths from influenza and pneumonia in the communities that used chloramine. (Communities in Massachusetts that used chlorine for disinfection were compared to those that used chloramine).
    1) Chloramine exposure damages lung mucosa, making the lungs more susceptible to allergens and infections.
    2) Chloramine is a less effective disinfectant and therefore people are exposed to more pathogens.


Skin Problems

    Chloramine tap water can cause severe skin reactions:
       rashing         dry skin
       itching         flaking
       welting         blistering
       chapping         burning sensation
       cracking         scarring
       bleeding         pigmentation
    Chloramine can aggravate other skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis.
    Chloramine can cause bleeding lips, dry mouth and dry throat.
    Chloramine can cause burning, red, and dry eyes.
    Skin exposure to ammonia "breaks down cell structural proteins, extracts water from the cells and initiates an inflammatory response, which further damages the surrounding tissues."


Digestive and Gastric Problems

    Chloramine damages digestive mucosa.
    Chloramine can aggravate digestive disorders.
    It is suggested that monochloramine is responsible for gastric cancer. (Journal of Gastroenterology, 1997, "Enhancement by Monochloramine of the Development of Gastric Cancers in Rats; a possible mechanism of Helicobacter, pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. Click here for a PDF, 2.87 MB.)


Kidney and Blood Problems

    Persons with liver or kidney disease and those with hereditary urea cycle disorders are at increased risk for ammonia toxicity from the consumption of chloraminated water.
    Kidney dialysis patients cannot use chloraminated water in their dialysis machines because it will cause hemolytic anemia.
    Chloramine must be completely removed from the water in dialysis treatment using extensive carbon filtration and a reverse osmosis or Cation filtering system to remove both chlorine and ammonia from the water.
    There are populations that are unusually susceptible to ammonia reactivity or toxicity due to factors such as genetic makeup, age, health status, etc.

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Filtration

    Filtration for chloramine is very expensive compared to filtration for chlorine.
    To remove chloramine, an extensive carbon filter (to remove the chlorine part of the chloramine molecule) followed by a reverse osmosis or cation filter (to remove the ammonia) is necessary.
    There is NO certified showerhead filter to remove chloramine. The high flow rate and large volume of water passing through a showerhead renders the showerhead filter useless.
    Sink water filters for chloramine handle low flow, cold water conditions only.
    For high flow uses like showering and bathing, a whole house filtration system would be needed to effectively remove chloramine and ammonia.
    A whole house filtration system could cost between $10,000 to $15,000 with $1,200 maintenance per year.
    For a 5-unit apartment building, the cost could be as high as $80,000 to $120,000 plus yearly maintenance.
    Even with a comprehensive filtration system, no filtration system engineer will guarantee complete removal of chloramine. Chlorine is by far easier to remove with inexpensive carbon filtration.

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Misleading Statements from the SFPUC

    Contrary to SFPUC's website (Q 18), the NSF DOES NOT certify showerhead filters for chloramine. It only certifies cold-water, low-flow filters for drinking water.
    Contrary to what the SFPUC says (Q 14), there IS a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on monochloramine, available at http://ptcl.chem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/CH/chloramine.html.
    The SFPUC says that chloramine DOES NOT bioaccumulate in the body (Q 39) Then it contradicts itself (Q 30). See SFPUC Questions and Answers.
    In Q 41, the SFPUC claims that chloraminated water is safe for the general public and for people with suppressed immune systems. However, since chloramine is a much weaker disinfectant, those with suppressed immune systems are at increased risk.
    In Q 31 and Q 32, the SFPUC claims chloramine does not cause dry skin, skin rashes, or asthma. Yet no studies have been done to date on the skin or respiratory effects of chloramine as used as a water disinfectant.

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Business Effects

    It is costly and time consuming for businesses that must filter out chloramine from their water for their use and processing needs. They include:
    •  chip manufacturers
    •  medical suppliers
    •  Pharmaceutical companies
    •  dialysis machine technicians
    •  pet stores with fish, amphibians, reptiles
    •  food businesses that use water (fresh or saltwater)
    •  breweries
    •  photo labs
    •  biotech companies
    The cost is often passed on to the consumer and the public at large.

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Plumbing Problems and Some Implications for Health

    Chloramine can cause leaching of lead from lead pipes, lead soldering and from so called "lead free" brass plumbing parts.
    Lead leached by chloramine can cause lead poisoning. Lead poisoning can cause neurological damage, health problems and even death in young children.
    Chloramine can cause pinhole pitting in copper pipes. Leaks from the pinholes can cause mold to grow. Some molds are highly toxic to humans and can endanger the health of individuals, often permanently.
    Insurance companies do not cover damage from mold. As a result, some homeowners lose their homes.
    Chloramine can cause rubber corrosion of rubber plumbing parts like toilet flappers and rubber casings.
    Rubber corroded parts need to be replaced with chloramine resistant parts such as synthetic polymer.
    Rubber corrosion can be spotted as early as 6 months after chloramine has been added to the water supply. Signs of corrosion can be seen when little black specks appear in the water from plumbing parts.
    The thousands to tens of thousands of dollars in plumbing repair costs caused by chloramine are passed on to property owners.

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Environmental Effects

    Canadian EPA ruled chloramine "toxic" as defined in Section 64 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, as a result of a study assessing the impact of high volume chloraminated water discharges entering the environment, particularly on fish.
    Chloramine is toxic to fish, amphibians, and water-based reptiles and marine invertebrates. Chloramine enters directly into the bloodstream of fish, and amphibians through gills and skin, respectively.
    Chloramine must be removed from the water with a GAC (granular activated carbon) filter followed by a reverse osmosis or Cation filter. Note: The GAC filtration filters out only the chlorine from the chloramine molecule leaving the ammonia behind.
    Chloramine run-off from water hydrants or broken mains that enter storm drains, streams, lakes, rivers, and creeks, endangers the lives of fish, amphibians, water invertebrates, and other sensitive marine animals.
    Chloramine must be filtered out BEFORE it reaches bodies of water. This includes wastewater released into the environment from wastewater treatment plants.

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CCAC Recommendations

    CCAC recommends that chloramine be removed from the water supply. The SFPUC should discontinue the use of chloramine as a water disinfectant until the appropriate scientific studies are done to test the safety of chloramine as a water treatment option.
    CCAC supports the use of prefiltration of organic matter before disinfection that the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends to control trihalomethanes (THMs). The use of prefiltration will allow us to continue to use chlorine as our water disinfectant thus eliminating all the harmful effects that chloramine is causing.
    Note: Organic matter is a precursor to the formation of trihalomethanes, a possible but not proven carcinogen. Removing organic matter prevents the formation of trihalomethanes in the first place. This allows the use of chlorine and takes best advantage of its superior disinfection capabilities. Chlorine is much more effective at killing disease causing organisms than chloramine. Chlorine has been well tolerated for decades, is easily and inexpensively filtered out, and has been studied extensively. For a more complete explanation, see the WHO report, "Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality."


Copyright © 2006
Denise Johnson-Kula
Lillian Lieberman

To print Chloramine Facts, click here for a pdf file (41 KB). To download the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to read and print pdf files, click here.

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Last modified: 09/08/2010 00:02:15

ljgerken

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #429 on: September 18, 2011, 11:52:29 AM »
Has anyone seen this site or newsletter?  Is it credible?

http://poleshift.ning.com/profiles/blogs/7-of-10-status-as-of-september-15-2011

Yowbarb

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #430 on: January 16, 2012, 02:00:31 PM »
People need to be reminded that "threats" can come from their next door neighbor.  When TSHTF, everyone, sadly, can become a threat, because in spite of our common thinking that we are so "civilized", we are really just a step away from being savages.  There are a lot more STS people out there than STO, and when people are starving, they will justify their belief in "survival of the fittest" and will not hesitate to take what they need from you even if it means hurting or killing you.  We need to be "wise as serpents, and innocent as doves" as the bible says, and also learn not to "cast our pearls to the swine".

My dear elderly mother said if starving people came to her door, she would not let them in, but would give them some food to take with them.  She had to be educated that she should never answer the door when alone, and that once the people learned she had food, they might take it by force, hurting her in the process.  Thank God, she will be with my four brothers and I will not have to worry about those kinds of situations.


Wise ideas.
I was thinking I would try to place something outside the area of my property not near the house. It might be hard to have anything to spare but a barrel of water, some foods, tarps,  etc. would help a desperate person.
True no telling how people will react.
People will need to be wary and put the safety of their own group particularly the children, first.

Yowbarb

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #431 on: April 09, 2012, 07:39:40 AM »
Well I just found out I have C-diff. from the Cleavland clinic and antibiotics, it is not fun. I was running to the wash room every fifteen minutes, they gave Metronidazole generic for Flagyl I hope it works.

1969quartz0 it's been a few weeks now, so are you getting a lot better? We hope so.
- Yowbarb

Yowbarb

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #432 on: August 04, 2012, 05:43:58 PM »
Do you have to actually be barefoot, or will wearing socks be OK?  I was out in my socks earlier.

I'm still learning but I feel socks should be as good  or nearly as good. At least they are mainly a natural substance. Right now I am barefooted on our stone tile hoping that will help.
One thing my daughter told me was in the videos, rubber sole shoes prevent the body from discharging
the harmful energy. People used to wear leather soles...now mainly rubber... Rubber shoes help in not getting a shock but then they keep in the microwave energy...in the body, that is.
« Last Edit: August 04, 2012, 06:33:49 PM by Yowbarb »

Yowbarb

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Re: Miscellaneous threats to survival
« Reply #433 on: August 20, 2017, 01:49:16 AM »
http://www.wikihow.com/Test-Your-Home-for-Radon-(USA)

wikiHow to Test Your Home for Radon (USA)

Radon is an odorless gas that decays into radioactive particles that can get trapped in your lungs when you breathe, which damages tissues and increases your risk of lung cancer. In fact, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the USA and claims as many as 21,000 lives per year.[1] Radon comes from the breakdown of uranium in soil, rock and water and can enter your home through porous building materials or leaks in your foundation. Learn how to test your home for radon and reduce the health risks to your family.

Testing Your Home for Radon

Buy or order a testing kit. There are numerous kinds of low-cost “do-it-yourself” radon test kits that you can either buy from a local hardware or home improvement store, or order online.[2] Depending on where you live, you may qualify for reduced price or free kits from state public health department. Be aware that there are two categories of radon air tests: short-term and long-term.
Short-term radon tests are the most common and convenient. They measure radon levels for between two to seven days, depending on the device. Homeowners should use use short-term testing.
Long-term tests measure radon levels for 90 days to one year. These radon tests give results more reflective of seasonal or year-round average radon levels in your home.[3] Long-term testing should be done by professionals.
Whatever radon test kit you get, make sure it meets the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) requirements.

Close your doors and windows. Before you can get an accurate sample of the air in your home, you'll need to close all of your exterior doors and all of your windows. Close them at least 12 hours prior to and throughout the testing period, which can be up to seven days with some short-term radon tests.[4]
Heating and A/C systems, as well as fans that re-circulate air in your home may be operated while radon testing.[5]
However, don't operate fans or other machines that bring in air from the outside — it can contaminate your results.
You shouldn't conduct short-term radon testing during unusually severe storms or when it's really windy outside. Wait for calm weather.

Find a place to position your radon kit. Your radon test kit should be placed in the lowest level of your home that you spend a significant amount of time in.[6] This could mean the basement level if you frequently use it, or the first floor if you don't use or don't have an underground basement.
Choose a room that you use regularly, such as the living room, playroom, office or bedroom.
Don't set the testing kit up in your kitchen or bathrooms, because humidity and various fumes can affect or contaminate the results.
Whatever room you choose, position the testing kit at least 20 inches (.5 meters) above the floor — use a small sturdy table if need be. Make sure it's away from drafts, high heat, humidity and exterior walls.[7]

Leave the radon-sensitive material in place. After reading the instructions, take out the material that's radon sensitive and position it properly for the specified time frame — typically between two to seven days for most short-term kits. Short-term test kits use either special charcoal canisters, liquid scintillation vials or continuous radon monitors that are electronic.[8]
Whichever type of material your kit contains, take it out of the package, remove the top(s) to expose it to the air and place it on the table.
If your kit has the liquid scintillation vials, place the two vials about 6 inches (15 cm) apart on the table for best results.

Collect the test material and mail it away. After the specified time frame is up, put the tops back on either the charcoal canisters or liquid scintillation vials, place them back into their original packaging and reseal it tightly.[9] Once safely resealed, send it via registered mail to the lab specified on the package for analysis.
Make sure to send in your package to the lab shortly after the testing period has ended for the most accurate results. Don't wait much more than a day or two.
You should receive your radon test results from the lab within a few weeks, both by regular mail and via email. With most labs, you can check your results online.
The results may look complicated, but remember that radon in the air is measured in picoCuries per liter of air or pCi/L (see below).

Use an electronic radon monitor instead. As noted above, using an electronic radon monitor in your house is an alternative, although they're typically used by testing professionals — and the price reflects this. Electronic radon monitors are placed face-up on a stable table or any flat surface where the ventilation slots on the device are not blocked.[10] Electronic detectors provide a continuous reading of radon levels in your home, which can be easily seen from a digital display.

An advantage of using an electronic radon monitor is you'll be able to read the results immediately after the testing period has expired. No need to send it away to a lab for analysis.
The main disadvantage is the price. Some units cost upwards of $1,000, although they're marketed for professional use.
In most cases, electronic radon detectors are used in conjunction with charcoal and vial methods — it's not meant to replace the more traditional methods.

Hire a professional to test your home. As an alternative to doing it yourself, you can hire a qualified radon tester to do the testing for you. Contact your state radon office or email an online training program about getting a list of qualified testers. It will be more expensive than doing it yourself, but you'll have the peace of mind that it's being done correctly and the results interpreted properly.
Long-term radon testing should always be done or monitored by a qualified radon measurement professional.
An advantage of getting your home professionally monitored for radon gas is that the testing team can recommend (or in some cases provide) an experienced crew to fix the problem.
Some radon reduction systems can reduce levels in your home by 99% — even very high levels can be reduced to much safer levels

 

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